Mythical kings

According to the Egyptian Mythology at the beginning of times divine dynasties ruled over Egypt and the people for many thousand years. The number and order of the ruling gods were different in most of the ages and places. The most widespread version was the so called Memphite Theology according to which Atum, the creator god was the first king. He was followed on the throne by Ra, the sun god, then Shu, the god of the air reigned.



According to the Egyptian traditions the first king of the country was not else than Osiris himself. (At this point the tradition is rather contradictional, but contradictions are easy to meet if we deal with Egyptian mythology and religion.) For more details about him and the following royal gods search in the "Gods" section of the site. In the fight for the crown he lost agains his brother, Seth but in reward he became the almighty lord of the Underworld.


After murdering his brother Osiris he ascended to the throne of Egypt and reigned for 400 years. Horus, the legitimate heir of Osiris waged war against him but first his forces could not break down the power of his uncle, so he turned to the Great Ennead for legal redress. After 60 years of trial and many confrontations Seth was shoven down and Horus took his rightful place on the throne of his father. (see the fight of Horus and Seth).


As the legitimate heir of Osiris he reoccupied the throne of his father from Seth after 60 years of fight and trial. First the council of the gods tried to solve the conflict by dividing the Valley of the Nile between the two rivals. Horus became the lord of Lower-Egypt and Seth the ruler over Upper-Egypt. This duality always penetrated the history of the empire - sometimes as conflict - even in the periods of strongest centralization.

According to Manetho - a greek historian - the reign of gods was followed by the reign of semi-gods and later the spirits of the dead. These "rulers" are not referred to by names in any of the sources. Their name was lost in the shadow of past even in the age of Manetho. Were they real kings? Or only mythical figures of unknown ages? We can find no referrence either about their number nor about the length of their reign. After we shall enter the so-called historic ages, the age of human kings, which begins with the "0th dynasty" around 3000 BC.

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